Beginners Computing


Secure Your PC

سکیور یور کمپیوٹر

All about SpyWare

What is Spyware?

Broadly speaking, Spyware is something that sneaks on to your computer, usually with the intentions of extracting money from you. At its worst, Spyware can take control of your computer, directing you to web pages you didn't want to go to, downloading other nasty stuff in the background, and even harvesting email address, passwords and your credit card details. But even a mild case of Spyware infection can be nuisance.
If you've ever been plagued by annoying pop-ups when your computer loads, or have strange new icons where your clock is (bottom right, called the System Tray), or if you're directed to a strange webpage when you try to go on to the internet, then you may well be infected.
Spyware, in the main, gathers information about you and your online habits, and sends that information to third party. And all without asking for your permission!

Where does Spyware come from?

Spyware can come from a whole host of different sources. But Spyware mainly gets on to your PC through deception. For example, suppose you receive this email:
Email with potential Spyware
You'd assume that this email was sent to you in error. Can you resist clicking on the link? After all, what harm can it do? Well, a lot actually! There well may be a joke on the site, but there's something less funny going on in the background - the web page is trying to sneak something on to your PC! You may also have seen a harmless-looking popup window asking you to click a button to proceed. You'll click it anyway, just to get rid of it. Clicking OK is what's infected your PC!
Other sources of Spyware infection are freeware or shareware software, an operating system that is un-patched and hasn't got the latest security software, downloading stuff from peer-to peer applications - the list is long!
And don't think your Anti-Virus software will protect you - it won't! Spyware is not considered to be a virus, so your Anti-Virus software won't spring in to action once an infection takes place - it will stay sleeping in the background, unaware that anything malicious is going on. The best tool for the job is a dedicated Spyware Detection system.

Beware of the Scam Merchants!

You may have come across a website that promises to check your PC for Spyware infection. All for free. All you need to do is to click a button to scan your PC. So you download, scan, and lo and behold - it's found something! Then up pops a message directing you to a website that lets you buy the software.
Except, it didn't really detect anything. Or if it did, it's what's know as a false positive (Something that sounds dangerous but isn't). The job of the scan is to scare you into buying their software.
If you type in "Spyware detection" into Google, most of the results that come back are for these types of programmes. According to Suzi Turner, writing on Zdnet , some of the most popular Spyware scams are these products:
  1. SpyAxe
  2. SpySheriff
  3. PSGuard
  4. WorldAntiSpy
  5. Spy Trooper
  6. Razespyware
  7. SpywareNo or SpyDemolisher
  8. WinAntiVirus or WinAntiSpyware 2005
  9. SlimShield tied with "Winhound Spyware Remover"
  10. Spyware Bomber (shut down by the FTC)
Hopefully, you haven't bought anything on the top ten list! Even if you haven't, check out the alarmingly long list of scam Spyware on (Fortunately, they also have a good-software list!)
If you've bought any of the software on the bad list then the protection you have is at no protection at all. At worst, these pieces of software can be incredibly difficult to get rid of - Spyware themselves!

How to get Rid of Spyware

As a computer owner, you really need your wits about you in the Spyware detection game. So what are you to do if you can't even trust the very people who say they are going to help you clean your PC? Well, you can fight back! The best way to do that is with software from very reputable companies. The following are the most well-known (and free) anti-spyware solutions:
Ad-Aware is probably the easiest to use of the three. SpyBot is good, but a bit complex for beginners. Microsoft Windows Defender is well worth getting, too. However, it's not the easiest piece of software in the world to use. You do get some good tools with it, though. Check out the websites by clicking the links above (there's a tutorial on the Microsoft site for Windows Defender).
Once you download your chosen anti-spyware solution, you need to install it on to your PC. After you have installed it, start the software and do a full scan of your computer. (Ad-Aware has a nice big button that says "Scan"!)
Unlike anti-virus software, it IS recommended that you have more than one anti-spyware solution on your PC. This is because spyware can be very difficult to get rid of, and anti-spyware software will rarely find 100 percent of threats. By having more than one solution, what one piece of anti-spyware programme misses, the other should (hopefully) pick it up.

Text Curtsy: Free Computer Tutorials 


The Windows 7 Desktop

دی ونڈوز سیون ڈیسک ٹاپ

When your computer starts for the first time, what you see is called the Desktop. It will look something like this:

 The Windows 7 Desktop 

The Desktop is split into two areas. The strip at the bottom, with the clock to the right and the round Start button to the left, is called the Taskbar. We explore this area in a different section (the Taskbar). But here's a closer look at it:

The Taskbar in Windows 7  

The Taskbar above is from Windows 7. Windows Vista users will see the round Start button on the left, but will have smaller icon just to the right of it. You'll still have the clock on the right hand side, though.
The rest of the Desktop is the space where all your programmes will appear when you start them up. This space contains a default background wallpaper, but it can also contain shortcuts to programmes, documents and folder.
You can change the default background wallpaper, and we'll do that next.

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ڈیسک ٹاپ بیک گراؤنڈ اینڈ وال پیپر

Desktop Backgrounds and Wallpapers

Windows 7 lets you easily change the image you see on your desktop. This is called the Desktop background, or Desktop wallpaper.
To chage your Desktop Wallpaper, click anywhere on the desktop with your right mouse button, and you should see a menu appear:
The right-click menu for the Windows 7 desktop
One of the items on the menu allows you to personalize your desktop screen. So click on Personalize with your left mouse button to see a window appear. This one:
The Personalization screen
The main area in the screen above let's you select a Theme from the available list. A Theme sets not only your desktop background, but also a screensaver, the colour of windows, sounds, and mouse pointers. And all that with just one click!
If you just want to set background wallpaper, however, select Desktop Backgroundfrom the bottom left. The default is called Harmony.
When you click on Desktop Background you should see something like the following:
A selection of in-built desktop backgrounds
You can select a picture from the ones available by clicking on it with your left mouse button. Your desktop background will then change. To make the change permanent, click the Save Changes button at the bottom.
If you have a picture of your own, you can use this instead of the ones built-in to Windows 7. To set your own picture, click the dropdown list at the top, where it says Windows Desktop Background:
Using your own pictures as desktop wallpaper
Here, we have moved to the Pictures Library folder to see what images are available. Another option is to click the Browse button. When you do, you'll see a dialogue box appear:
Browsing a Windows 7 folder
Browse to the folder where your images are and click OK. We have a folder called York with some images in it, so we've selected that one.
When you click OK, you'll see the images in that folder:
Background options
Select the image you want to appear on your desktop from those available. If you would like a slideshow of all the images in the folder, then click the Select All button. If you click the Select All button then the dropdown list at the bottom becomes available:
Select how often the desktop background  changes
This list lets you choose how often each image in the slideshow is displayed before moving on to the next one. The default is 10 seconds.
Another area to play around with is the Picture Position. Click the black arrow to see a dropdown list:
Background positions
Select each one in turn and watch what happens.
When you are happy with your choices, click Save Changes. You will then be taken back to the first screen:
Changing the color of Windows 7

Windows Colour

Another interesting area to play around is the Windows Colour area, circled in red in the image above. Click the link to see the following screen:
Color options
Things like the start menu, the taskbar, and the areas around programmes can all have the same colour scheme. The default is called Sky. Click one of the other colours above and watch what happens to your Taskbar at the bottom. Click the round Start button on the left of the Taskbar and you'll see that its colour too has changed. Uncheck the box that says "Enable transparency" and you'll see a deeper colour for the one you have chosen.
If you don't like the colours available, click the arrow to the left of Show Color Mixer. Then play around with the controls. To get back to the default colours, just click the colour square in the top left of the screen, which is Sky.
In the next section, we'll have a closer look at the Taskbar in Windows 7.

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The Windows 7 Taskbar

ونڈوز سیون ٹاسک بار

The taskbar is the thin strip that runs across the bottom of your screen. It is split into a number of different areas: a round Start button, Quick Launch icons, a notification area, and a clock. All other areas are the Taskbar itself. The image below shows where the different areas are:
The Start button is explained in a section all of its own, as it's probably the most important area of the Taskbar. Click here to go the Start button page:
The Windows 7 Start button
There is one more area on the Taskbar, and it's easily overlooked - the Show Desktop button. In the images above, you can just see a narrow rectangle to the right of the clock:
Click this button to minimize all open programmes and reveal the desktop.

Quick Launch Icons

In the main image above, take a look at the three big icons to the right of the round Start button. These are quick launch icons, meaning you can quickly launch any of the programmes you see there. When you hold your mouse over one of the icons, you'll see a small popup rectangle that shows you a preview of any open windows. In the image below, we're holding our mouse over the Firefox icon. (Firefox is a web browser used to display internet pages. It's Internet Explorer's main competitor.)
In Windows Vista, however, the icons will be smaller, and there's no popup.
Click on the preview window and it opens the programme up in full screen.
There are several ways to add new programmes to the Quick Launch area, but Windows 7 makes it a lot easier. Open up a programme using the Start menu. When it's open, use the right mouse button to click its icon in the Taskbar. A new menu appears:
In the image above, we have Microsoft Excel open. Right-clicking its icon in the Taskbar gave us the above menu. Once "Pin this program to the taskbar" is clicked with the left mouse button, it will appear permanently in the Quick Launch arrear. If you want to get rid of any Quick Launch programmes, the item on the menu will say "Unpin this program from the taskbar" when you right-click.
You can also use the Start menu to add programmes to the Quick Launch area. Again, right-click the programme you want to add. From the menu, select "Pin to Taskbar". In the image below, we're adding Notepad as a Quick Launch icon:
The result is a new icon in the Quick Launch area:

Notification Area

(NOTE: The Notification area saw a big change from Windows Vista to Windows 7. You should recognise a lot of the icons below, however, if you have Vista.)
The Notification area, formally called the System Tray, is the area of the Taskbar where you can view programmes and tasks that are running in the background, as well as view important messages about updating your computer. (Although the clock is considered part of the Notification area, we'll look at this separately.)
In the image below, the Notification area shows three icons:
The first one, the white arrow, is for hidden icons. Click the white arrow to see which icons have been hidden:
Probably the only one of the four icons above that you'll have is the speaker icon. This sets the volume for your speakers. If yours is too low, click the speaker icon to see a slider that you can move up and down:
The second of the three icons in the Notification area is a white flag. This flag alerts you to issues that need to be taken care of. Click the flag icon to see if there are any problems:
As you can see, Windows 7 is telling us that there is 1 message, and that it's to do with Windows Defender. You can click on the "1 message" heading at the top, or on the message itself. You can also open the "Action Center" from here.
The third icon that appears in the Notification area (on our computer, anyway) is a Network icon. This tells us that we have an internet connection, and there are no problems. If the internet access is down, there will be a red X through this icon:
The red X will disappear when the problem with the internet is solved.
In the next part, we'll take a look at the Windows 7 clock, and the date and time.

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